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Political system of GB. The UK is a parliamentary monarchy. Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the British state. The British Parliament is one of the oldest Parliaments in the world. It has existed since 1265. It consists of two chambers known as the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and the Queen as its head. The duration of Parliament is five years. The life of Parliament is divided into sessions. The main functions of Parliament are: 1) to make laws regulating the life of the community; 2) to approve Government spending and the means by which it raises the money required; 3) to control the executive activity of the Government; 4) to provide a forum for criticism of the Government, and to extract information about the activities and intentions of the Government and the institutions under its control. The House of Commons is made up of 650 elected members, and it is presided over by the Speaker. The House of Lords is a non-elected hereditary second chamber of Parliament. The House of Lords is composed of lords spiritual and lords temporal. The lords spiritual are the two leaders of the Church of and twenty- four bishops. The lords temporal are peers of royal descent. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor. The House of Lords has formally the power only to revise and amend bills passed through the House of Commons. The Government Executive power in the UK belongs to the Government, which consists of the Cabinet and other ministers of the Government. It includes about a hundred politicians under the Prime Minister, appointed to their offices, as ministers, by the Queen on his advice. It is a constitutional convention that the Prime Minister should be the head of the party with the largest number of seats in the House of Commons. A modern government is arranged in about fifteen departments. Queen Elizabeth II is the fourth sovereign of the House of Windsor. She is a Head of State. She have signed all new bills and it becomes an Act of Parliament. 1.