Список + все темы по английскому языку для сдачи выпускного экзамена в 11 классе 2001 года
Arthur Conan Doyle Arthur Conan Doyle was born in the capital of Scotland, Edinburgh. His father, Charles E. Doyle, was an artist and architect by profession, but he worked as a clerk in an office. The father died young and the Doyles were very poor. Arthur’s mother was a very good story-teller and he remembered her fantastic stories all his life. The talent of story-telling was inherited by Arthur from his mother and it helped him as a writer.During his school years he read much, and he often told his school friends long and interesting stories, getting cakes and sweets for that. After leaving school Conan Doyle became a student of the medical faculty at the university of Edinburgh. In this third year of studies he went as a ship doctor to the Arctic and upon graduating from the university, he again went in a ship to western Africa. He began his medical practice in a small English town Southsea, where he spent eight years. In 1887, he published his first detective story “A study in Scarlet”. Its main characters were Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson, and they became the most popular characters of a great many of Conan Doyle’s stories. “A scandal in Bohemia” opened a collection of detective stories under the title “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes”. The story was published in 1891 and soon after that Baker Street became the well-known address of Sherlock Holmes. The readers asked for more and more stories about Sherlock Holmes and for two years Conan Doyle wrote them. When he had written about twenty stories with Sherlock Holmes as the main detective, he was so tired of these stories that he decided “ to kill Sherlock Holmes”. He wrote a story, which he named “Holmes’s last case” (1893). In this story Holmes was killd during his struggle with Professor Moriarty. The writer hoped that after that he could begin writing other books. But the readers did not wish to lose their favourite character and ten years later the famous detective appeared again. In 1901 –1902 one of Conan Doyle’s best stories “The hound of the Baskervilles” was published. In 1891 Conan Doyle gave up his medical work and devoted all his time to his literaty activity. He also travelled much. He visited Europe, the USA and Egypt. In Norway he met Jerome K. Jerome, who wrote about that fact in one of his books. Beside detective stories, Conan Doyle also wrote historic novels, war books and an anticolonial book about the Belgian Congo. His two fantastic stories “The lost world” (1912) and “The Poisoned Belt” (1913) were quite successful. All his life Conan Doyle liked sports, he skied played golf and went in for boxing. He died in 1930, After his death, the famous detective Sherlock Holmes, together with his friend Dr. Watson, continued to live on the pages of Conan Doyle’s books. They are amound the favourite characters of English literature. Tourists coming to London always go to visit Bakers street to see the house where Sherlock Holmes lived. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov The world is rich in remarkable authors, but I think that Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was one of the greatest authorities. He is my favourite writer. In my opinion, he is the greatest Russian dramatist and short- story writer. I’m never tired of reading and rereading his plays and humorous stories. Chekhov was born in 1860 in Taganrog. In 1879 he went to Moscow, where he studies medicine. Though he practised little as a doctor in his lifetime, he was prouder of his medical knowledge than of his writing talent. While in college, Chekhov wrote humorous sketches for comic papers to support his family. He collected the best ones into a volume, Motley Stories, in 1886. The book attracted the attention of the publisher of the Novoje Vremja, Russia’s largest paper, and Chekhov was asked to contribute stories regularly. Chekhov, as an established writer, was able to develop a style of his own. Though he never gave up writing comic stories, he began working in a more serious vein. In 1887 Ivanov, his first play, established Chekhov as a dramatist. From then on, he concentrated on writing plays, as well as short stories. Chekhov was seriously ill. He had tuberculosis and knew what it meant. By 1892 his health was so bad that he was afraid to spend another winter in Moscow. He bought a small estate near a village Melikhovo, 50 miles from Moscow. He spent 5 years there, and those were happy years in spite of the illness. He wrote some of his best stories there, including Ward No.6, several well-known one-act comedies and two of his serious dramatic masterpieces, The Seagull and Uncle Vanya. The Seagull was first staged in the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Petersburg. It was a complete failure because of the dull and clumsy production. It was a cruel blow to Chekhov. However, the play was successfully performed as the first production of the Moscow Art Theatre in 1898. From then on, Chekhov was closely connected with this theatre and with its founder, K.S. Stanislavsky. In 1901 he married an Art Theatre actress, Olga Knipper, who acted in his play The Three Sisters the same year. Chekhov’s health went from bad to worse and he had to spent the remaining years in the Crimea and other health spas. The Cherry Orchard, his last play, was produced in 1904. Soon after the first night Chekhov died. He was 44. Chekhov had an immense influence on the 20th century drama. Besides, several generations of writers both in Russia and abroad studied and imitated Chekhov to perfect their own literary style.