Темы по английскому языку
The Englishmen The basic population of England is about 45 millions people. Live also in Ireland and outside British islands in English dominions and settlements and other countries. The English language concerns to West- German group Indo-European languages. The majority of believers of England belongs to English church, 3-4 million - to Catholic; it is a lot of the members various Protestants sects incorporated under the general name "Free churches ". The English people has developed as a result of mixture and long assimilation diverse ethnic of elements. One of most ancient inhabitants of British islands were celts tribes, put up here about middle 1-st millennium B.C. In V-VI centuries of our era on islands have moved from continent german tribes - Saxon, Jute. They by a part assimilated celts, by a part have pushed aside them in mountains of Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. Usual in VII-X centuries on the basis of german and celts tribes nationality Anglosaxon has undergone to significant influence Scandinavian, won in VIII-IX centuries some areas of England. The most important event in ethnic of a history of England - Normann a gain of England 1066. Prevailing a situation in the country have occupied Franconormann barons; the French language has become official language, though the people continued to speak on Anglosaxon language. Gradually (to XIII-XIV to centuries) Anglosaxon and Normanns have merged in a uniform English nationality a generality. In XVI century develops colloquial and lithuanian language. English bourgeois revolution has finished XVII centuries in the basic process formation of a English nation. In XVII-XIX centuries many Englishmen have moved in seized by England colonies and become one of main components in formation of a line of a nation of the Americans of USA, anglo-Canadian, Australian. The originality of a history of development of England has put a print on many parties of life of England - promoted preservation of a line of traditional features in a life and public life. A vertical arrangement of apartments in dwelling, chimney heating in ancient houses, in food - traditional national dishes till now is kept. The adherence to the old forms both traditions in public and private life is characteristic also to images for bourgeois and finely bourgeois of circles. In life of England large importance have the various societies and clubs. England - native land of millions sports games; the English sports terms and expressions have come in use of almost all European peoples. The oral national creativity of England is rich, the English ballads executing under accompanement of a violin and harp are most known. English language Concerns to West-German group Indo-European of languages. In English speak and use in state office-work, literature and science, about 200 millions the person - in Great Britain and Ireland, in USA, Canada, Australia New of Zealand, partially in Southern Africa and India. One of five official and working languages accepted ООН. The English language conducts the beginning from language Old German племен, moved in V-VI centuries from continent in Britain. The complex interaction Old German tribe`s of adverbs brought in Britain, occupied celtes tribes, and formation, developing in conditions, English nationality, has resulted in formation territorial dialects on old tribe`s to a basis. Due to economic and political influence Wessecs kingdom in IX-X centuries in cultural life of England the greatest meaning has got wessecs a dialect. The ambassador penetration into England in VI century of a christianity the latin alphabet has replaced Old German runes, and the influence of latin language was reflected in English lexicon. From subdual Anglosaxons celts of the population of Britain, thus, geographical names were kept. Forays Scandinavians, finished by submission of England in 1016 to the Danish king, have caused creation of Scandinavian settlements in the country. The interaction kindred of languages - English and Scandinavian - had an effect available in modern English language, significant quantity of words of a Scandinavian origin, and also some fanatical features describing dialects of northern England. During formation a nation there was a formation of national English language developing on the basis of a London dialect, which combined in itself southern and western-central dialect features. The introduction in England book-printing (1476) promoted fastening to distribution of the London forms, to that popularity of product of a large writer D. Choler (1340-1400) writing on a London dialect has helped much. In second half XVII century and especially in XVIII century is issued sets of managements on and normative grammar, which authors aspire to order grammatic norms of language: one - on the basis of rational grammar, others - proceeding from the alive use of the forms of language. Colonians the expansion of England in XVII-XVIII centuries has caused distribution of English language outside Great Britain and has resulted in occurrence of some regional differences. It is possible to explain differences of American variant of English language from British to that first settler in northern America of the profit from London and his vicinities, and laster were birthes from northern Great Britain and Ireland. The distinction between American and British variants of English language most of all has an effect in lexicon and somewhat in phonetics; difference in grammar insignificant.