Áèëåòû ïî àíãëèéñêîìó çà 11 êëàññ
1. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying. Many people devote ( ïîñâÿùàþò ) their lives travelling . They can spend a lot of time for the road .And they can travel by car, by sea, by train , and by air. Also travelling by air usually preferred by people who haven’t got much time and they must quickly get to another city, country or continent. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen who have to communicate with people from other countries. Each of us has a lot of relatives and friends. Some of them live in other countries. For example you live in Russia, Moscow and you have some relatives in France or in Britain. You certainly can get to GB by train , and by sea but it will take you a lot of time. It would be easier if you choose a plane. There are some rules in air port which every passengers mast following At first it is necessary to arrive at the airport 2 hours before departure time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage. Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be paid for except for some articles that can be carried free of charge. At first you go through the Customs, there you mast fill in the customs declaration before you talk to the customs officer. He may ask any passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits , tobacco , presents. Then you do to the check - in counter where your ticket is looked at, you are given luggage tags and boarding passes, your . The next formality is filling in the immigration form and going through passport control. The form has to be filled in block letters . You write your name, nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip. After fulfilling all these formalities you go to the departure lounge where you can have a snack , read a paper buy something in the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to board the plane. When you decide to travel by air you can buy first and economy class tickets. The first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always more expensive .In spite of first class tickets being very expensive have some advantages over economy. At first it is more comfortable seats. The dinner is much better then in economy class , and if you have bought a first class ticket you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have a private emergency exit for the first class passages only. You have one more advantage : you can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane is very fast it has some inconveniences. There is a jet-lag, a difference between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t be very well because of it , but don’t worry – it won’t take you long to get used to it. As a whole to fly by planes is pleasant and convenient 2. British Painters It is sometimes possible to see the national character in painters or groups of painters. But the visual language of art travels quickly and easily, and artists are influenced by things they see all over the world. Painters themselves also travel and visited over countries. The first important period of English Painting was started by German visitor Hans Holbein the Younger lived in London between 1527 and 1543, and painted wonderful portraits of the rich and famous people. He had learned from Italian painters. Inspired by Holbein, a school of portrait painters developed in England. One of the most famous of these painters was Nicholas Hilliard, who specialized in miniatures: very small, beautifully colored paintings. Another great portrait painter, Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), who too learning in Italy. The quality of Reynolds paint is differs from his predecessors(ïðåäøåñòâåííèêè) : William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough, he represented(ïðåäñòàâëåí) the expression on the face and the insights(ïîíèìàíèå) into the character. Although there have been brilliant British painters, few of them have achieved an international reputation. However, there is at least one notable(èçâåñòíûé) exception -J.M.W. Turner (1775-185l). His paintings were years ahead of their time. He was working in the first half of the 19th century, but his work seems to look forward to the impressionism of 75 years later. In fact the genius of Turner was not really appreciated (îöåíåííûé) in his own time. Only not long time ago he come to be regarded (áûòü ðàñöåíåí ) as the greatest of Br. painters. Much of Turner’s works is at the Tate Gallery in London , which is also the best place in the country to see modern art. The 20th century was an extremely busy and exciting time for Br. painters. At first the tendency was , as often in past , to imitate the European’s painters. The French impressionists had taken the art world like a storm and finagle painters try to copy them. The Picasso and Bragne come up with something completely new – cubism and again Br. painters followed . Only in the middle of the 20th century a new movement had started actually in this country. Pop art painters caught the imagination of young people. This movement dropped almost all previous (ïðåäûäóùèé) ideas about painting, and picked-up the images of advertising . Ðop music and cheap everyday objects. The first artist who do it were Richard Hamilton , Edward Paolozzi and Peter Black(who did the famous cover of the Beatles album “Sergeant Pepper”) Nowadays the Br. artists , seem to have given up the traditional forms of drawing, paining and sculpture. If you go to an art collage exhibition , you will probably see photos, constructions with lights and sounds. Media attention is always on the new ,and the daring and shocking works are often Are awarded by prizes for its originality. And old-fashion taste and skill stayed in past. 3. Staying at the hotel. Speak about everyday services available at the hotel. When you come to another country or city you can stay at your friend’s house or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may stay at a hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and in city The hotels at the seaside usually occupied big territory . And the services and facilities are usually better there then in city hotels. You can get more things free. Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2 of 3 times a day and in city hotels you can get only breakfast . Before you arrive somewhere you can make arrangements about a room of the hotel you’ll choose. You can call at the hotel of send them a fax or telegram which numbers you can find in the advertisement. If you haven’t done it , when you arrive at the hotel it is necessary to come up to the reception desk .There a person can order a room. First of all you must fill in an arrival card. In this card you must gave information about yourself. Your name and surname, telephone number and address besides it is necessary to point out how long are you going to stay here. Also among the seaside hotels the best with club system . Usually on the territory of such hotels there are 4-5 storied building with single rooms, double rooms, and suites and separate there are family cottages. The area of such hotels is usually very big about 50hectores . Club system allows to take free any , soft drinks, food 24 hours a day, because everything is included into the price of the tour. There are all day room services , dry cleaners, laundries. In the rooms there is a refrigerator, bathroom, a satellite TV and direct dial phone. Also such hotels have their own place on the beach with comfortable sun beds .You can spend time riding horses, playing tennis, golf, polo, visiting shops, which are usually situated in the territory of the hotels. In the evenings you can go to the disco or to the restaurant . The menu in the restaurants including different cuisine’s such as :French, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so on. You can order a yacht tour to some historical places (if any) or something like that. After visiting such hotels you’ll return home happy and refreshed. 5. Pop and classical Music. Music always been an integral part of human life. In ancient times it accompanied the ritual ceremonies later it began to occupy more important place. Then it transformed in a means of passing time. It reached the highest development only in 20-th century . new directions appeared in music such as jazz, disco, rock-and-roll , rock, pop and so on. The music which was composed from 17 till 20-th century is usually calls classical. That were a sumphonies, ouvertures, suits, sonnats. The most famous classical musicious were: Bach, Bethoven, Gaiden, Shopen, Rohmaninov and many others. In 20-th century it was not so popular any more, her the place was occupied by other genres, such as fate, ðîð, jazz, and last years became very popular folk songs. As for me i neither like classical nor pop music. If we are compare them I’ll prefer the classical As the songs consists not only of music, not an unimportant role plays lyrics. In pop music there isn’t both these making elements. There are a lot of people who enjoyed by classical music, they usually visit concerts of different symphonic and chamber archers. It is often people over 30. They like and admire this music and consider it genius. Some compositions ( works) is really charming( âîñõèòèòåëüíû) for example the Moonlight sonnat and «to Elise» by Bethoven, and «In cave of the mountain king” by The music is wonderful and you can listen it for many times. And a lot of generations admired and will admire with it. As if to pop music it is very hard to tell something similar about it. I am very doubt that in (÷åðåç) 50 years the people will listen to what have the pop singers composed. Because the music is very primitive , and the lyrics are stupid. The y sing only about love and some problems which connected with it. And I can’t listen to it at all. I’ve chosen a rock music. Nowadays it isn’t very popular among young people. They prefer to listen pop. Rap and so on. The main advantage of rock music above all others is lyrics. Rock singers write music and texts them selves and for it i respect them more . the most famous rock group are : Kino, Alisa, Nau, Krematorium, DDt, and many others. Most of them appeared 10-25 years ago , but still fortunately there are people who fond of such music. Rock singers write about eternal (Âå÷íûé) problems. In their lyrics reflects their fillings . And each of us can find something close only for him. And that is what rock music about. And that’s why I like it so mach . 6. Theatre Roll up! Roll up! Audiences have crowded into the Palladium since it opened as a music hall in 1910. London's theatres have drawn attention for unrivalled standards ever since the days of Shakespeare when his plays were enacted in the Globe Theatre. DruryLane, Shaftesbury Avenue, Haymarket and the Strand are bright with theatrical lights, with musicals and dramas, farce and comedy. Theatre isn't confined to the West End: the stages of the Royal Court in Sloane Square, the Mermaid by Blackfriars Bridge, the Barbican in the City and the National Theatre on the South Bank beckon nightly. Fringe theatre has been growing but with an ever changing choice of productions to see, for longevity there's nothing to beat Agatha Christie's The Mousetrap, which runs and runs. Most British cities have a theatre, but London has the greatest number. There are over 50 theatres in London's West End, the area in London with most theatres, and about 35 smaller fringe theatres. In recent years, musicals have been very successful. About 51A million people, many of them tourists, go to see a musical every year in London. Going to the theatre in Britain is not only popular, but also expensive. Not many young people can afford to go. It is possible to get cheaper tickets by going to afternoon performances called matinees or by buying stand-bys, half-price tickets which are sold half an hour before a performance starts. 7. Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe. Meals play an important role in human life. Because it contained indispensable ingredients for life activity of our organism. Such as dioxides, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are contained in fish, vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs . To be healthy man should eat 3 times a day. For lunch people usually eat buiscuits, toasts, sandwiches, cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar accordingly to your taste . For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl, fish or meat with garnish. Many people have to eat out of home in restaurants or in cafes . In such places you can order French fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza and many others, but these meals are very harmful for our health. For the last 10 years in Moscow and in over big cities appeared a lot of restaurants and fast-food cafes. And with each year them becomes ever more. The old restaurants, such as Prague, were advanced, and at the same time has appeared a lot of new. From a net of restaurants of a fast feed(meal) by first has appeared McDonalds, and then Russian bistro Sbarro, ¨lki palki, Patio pizza and ò.ä Such trade marks as McDonalds , Sbarro and Patio a pizza are known all over the world, and in what you to the country would not be , whether it be Russia, Great Britain or USA quality of meal and å ¸ of assortment in these restaurants everywhere identical. And such restaurants as Russian bistro and åëêè ïàëêè are only in Russia, and were created on an image and similarity of McDonalds. each of these restaurants has firm dish. For example McDonalds associates with Big Mag Sbarro and Patio a pizza offer very tasty pizzas, in Russian bistro a wide range of pies made on the Russian recipe. But the cheapest and qualitative meal can be found in McDonalds. In Russia unfortunately price level in restaurants of a fast food, and in expensive restaurants very strongly differs and many people simply are not capable to pay the accounts. In Great Britain and in USA considerably more people can visit restaurants. Plus to all service in restaurants of Russia can not be compared with European yet. Also nowadays many restaurants give services in delivery of their most known dishes directly to you home. For this purpose it is necessary only to call and to name that want. In Europe this system exists for a long time, and in Russia it has appeared absolutely recently. In Moscow besides restaurants with Russian there are the restaurants with the Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Turkish and Spanish kitchen witch use the large popularity. But it is not enough of them and the prices same are accessible not to all . As besides restaurants it is possible to find set of tents in streets of Moscow selling hot meal, but the quality of it very doubtful. I hope that in due course will occur ever more and more restaurants offering tasty, qualitative and useful meal. 8.Speak about shopping in GB and in Russia Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays France is the centre of fashion. But in the last century her place was occupied by GB. At that time a lot of new modern shops appeared. Now their branches are situated all over the world. you can find . The Most famous of them in London in Oxford Street, Regent Street, and Knightsbridge . Besides book’s ,clothes’, food shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets and department stores where you can buy everything from a button to a car and furniture. Here there are the most famous British shops: The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo and skin-care products for men and for women. Dillons :was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London. Next: is the a chain of Popular fashion clothes shops for men and women. It became famous for the suits which were worn by the businessmen and businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s. W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops which sells newspapers and magazines. Smith’s also sell books, videos, stationary, pens and office equipment. Harrods : is the famous London department store Sainbury’s supermarkets are one of the leaders in food and drink selling in Britain. But the most famous of British shops all over the world is Marks & Spencer . It attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to millionaires . Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime Minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of £529 million, which is more than £ 10 million a week. It all started 109 years ago, when a young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in Leeds market. He didn’t have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons, and few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny. 10 years later , he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in many towns in the north of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all over the world – in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. In M&S the best selling clothes are :for women: jumpers, bras, and knickers; for men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for children; underwear and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh chickens, bread, vegetables and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its business on three principles: good value, good quality, and good service. Also it changes with the times –once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it’s food, furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on styles of clothes. 9. Education in GB and in Russia. As in other countries the vast majority (Îãðîìíîå áîëüøèíñòâî) of people in medieval Br were illiterate. Written texts were in Latin and exact of churchman , there was only a small group of professional clerks , who could read and write. And sometimes when you needed something to write down you had to pay one of the clerks for his job. After the Norman invasion in 1066 Br. started to join social-political life of Europe. In that time the rich families began to employed clerks to teach their children at home. Then church mans began to open schools for boys. After French revolution which brought ideas of social equality . woman began to demand access to some sort of education as boys. In 1874 Gorton Collage and Cambridge afford the first university places for women. Nowadays everybody has a right to a school place for a child from age 5 to age 16, and a collage place from 16 to 18. This places are provided free of charge. In GB there are 2 steps which is free of charge: this is Primary school ( here learn children from age 5 to 11) and Secondary school (from 11 to 18 years old). The Primary school consist of 6 steps, and Secondary school education can be devoted into 2 parts. First it is 5 steps after which children can leave Secondary school after they pass 11 GCSE exams( General Certificate of School Education), but they can also stay at school or in collage for more 2 years. Most Secondary schools in GB are comprehensive for example state school s which take children of all abilities. About 7% of students go to privet schools. This schools don’t receive any money from state and they are usually single sex, and children live there during tern-time. Most pupils in GB schools wear school uniform. The favorite colors for it are: blue, gray, black and marron. After Secondary school only 25% of Students continuos education and go to universities. GB Universities are not open to every one it depends on your last year in school. And your A-level results. For example the Nottingam university accepting students it the have 2 Bs and a C in A- level. In Russia the education system is different. All children must learn from 1 stage to 9 it is obligatory education. After which pupils pass 5 exams. They can leave school or stay for 2 years more (10 and 11 grades) . it is High secondary school education. At the end of 11 form all pupils must pass 6 exams. 2 of them are identically to all. It is written literature and mathematics . in schools with the profound study of languages (foe example English) the exam on this subject is considered composure . other 3 or 4 exams pupils choose themselves. During the last form many pupils usually attends to the courses of the university they had chosen. In Russia everybody could enter the university, but he must pass entrance exams. In every university they are different. 11. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place. I live in Moscow, in North Orekhovo - Borisovo district. It is situated in the South of the city. In my district there is Tzarizansky park . It is a very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and Bazhenov to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it to Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the building of Big Palace and the architects began to remake it but they didn’t finish their work. For the many years it remained unfinished. But about 5 or 7 years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to walk there and breathe fresh air . It is very important that in our district there is a forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our district are bad as the winds from the North bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot of industrial projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated. I live in a 3 room flat. There are 2 bedrooms, a living room, and a kitchen. In my room there is a wardrobe , a bed, a desk ,a computer, a tape recorder and some pot plants. In the kitchen there is a table with chairs , a refrigerator , a microwave oven , roaster, and a TV set. In the living room there is a sofa, a TV set , a hi-fi system and a table with chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park there is another historical place in our district Kolomenskoe .It is a park too. In warm days it is very pleasant to walk there with friends . I like my district because nowadays a lot of new interesting shops and places opened here and in has become more modern. Certainly it is a pity that out district is situated very far from the center of Moscow and it takes me a lot of time to get there, but near my house there is Domodedovskaya metro station which is very good. The only thing I wish is a better ecological situation in our district and then everything will be OK . 13. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city , in a small town and in the country The city is the place where all industrial cultural and educational centers are situated. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinemas ,big shops and hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People try to live in cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For example if you get ill a hospital or a chemist’s shop will be situated near your home in the city, and if you live in the country it will be hard to find any medical help very quicly . Also in big cites you can fiend all sorts of entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and so on. Many people like to spend their free time in them because it helps them to relax and bring them a lot of pleasure. It is really convenient that everything you need in daily life is situated near you. One of the most important comforts of big cites is that you can fast get everywhere you like by underground, bus, trolley bas. Also in big cities there is electricity therefore you can use electrical devices such as TV sets, computers, radio, microwave owen, refrigerators and so on. One more thing, without which it would be impossible to live today is the telephone and where there is a telephone there is also Internet. The connection has huge value in the life of people and we have got used to it to such extent , that it there is no telephone we feel uncomfortable and lonely. Yes , it is really comfortable, and at first glance everything is good but nowadays big cites there are a great amount of cars and factories Big cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and water, The streets became noisy and after hard working day people cannot relax. People try to do everything to go to the countryside because only there they can find quietness . Every holiday and every week-end people try to leave their houses and go to the country. I live in Orekhovo-Borisovo North district . The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my house a lot of industrial objects are situated. For example near the Tobacco factory “DUCAT” is situated . As for me I prefer to live in a big city because A lot of big shops are situated near my home, but I also like to spend my holidays in the country because after living in the city for about 9 months I begin to get tired. . 14. London. London is where the invading (âòîðæåíèå) Romans first crossed the River Thames. They built a city a square mile in size, surrounded it with a wall and called it Londinium. This original site of London is now called the City of London and is Britain's main financial center. The City is only a very small part of London. In the 11-th century, London began to expand beyond (Âíå) to City walls when King Edward the Confessor built a huge abbey at Westminster. There is saying "When a man is rtred of London, he is lired of life!" (Dr Johnson)and it is quite trufful. You can't be bebored in London. There are hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums. There are parks and street markets, over 80 theatres and even more cinemas. The centre of London has many different areas Each one has its own special character. Covent Garden in London’s West End , is crowded with cafes, clubs and clothes shops. Soho is also known for its clubs. Knightsbridge has a lot of exclusive and expensive shops, as well as many of the embassies. Fleet Street is the home of the Law Courts. One part of the West End has so many Chinese shops and restaurants that it is called Chinatown. Chelsea and Sloane Street are supposed to be the homes of trendy rich kids. When you go outside the centre you find many areas which used to be small villages. The village became part of the city when the city expanded, but they still managed to keep their village is extremely expensive. It is on one or the highest hills in London Some visitors say that London is an expensive city, but there are a few things to do which do not cost a lot of money. Most museums are free and give free guided tours as well as lectures. The Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank of the River Thames has free music in the foyer every lunch rime. The National Theatre next to the Royal Festival Hall also has free concerts in the foyer evening and on Saturday lunchtime. Some cinemas are cheaper on Mondays; others sell half-prise tickets before 6 pm If you want to discover London, it is best to start with a tour on a sightseeing bus. It’s also fun to go on a guided walk. These are advertised in Time Ont, a weekly magazine that tells you what is happening in London. The walks last up to 3 hours and have special themes, such as "Ghosts and Haunted Taverns", "Royal London - Palaces and People", "The Beatles London - Rock Routes of the Sixties". Also there are a lot of beautiful historical places like the Westminster Abbey. It is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely from the time of henry III who began to rebuild the church , a task which lasted nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials of many of Britain’s most eminent citizens. 16. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do you imagine the medical care of the future? In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There is a wide network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill he calls a local physician. The doctor visits his patient. And examines him. He usually sounds the patient’s chest, listens to his heart, fells his pulse and sometimes sahes , his blood pressure. He also examines his throat and tonque . After the physician has diagnose the case the prescribes medicine for the descase. Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice If the patient follows the doctor’s instructions , it doesn’t take him long to recover. As soon as he feels better , he comes to the local out-patient clinic for final examination. If the case in complicated and the patient needs shecial treatment he is taken to the hospital.The situation in medical service has changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine has become very expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery cost a lot of money. Mist people cannot afford being operated. Nowadays we cannot say that medical service is must be given by the government to run medical service properly. Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped. Many of them are old-fashioned and need repairing. Doctors and nurses are overworked and underpaid. One of the positive features, which still exists in Russia, medical service in regular medical check-up of school children. It is very important to prevent illness. They are vaccinated and examined by specialists. I think that medical service should be free of charge for all people. 18.Museums There are so many museums and galleries in London that even people who have lived there for a long time don't know them all. Some are traditional museums, but many are now making their exhibitions interactive, or hands- on, to encourage people to touch and understand what is on display. At the Science ' Museum, visitors can carry out experiments. At the Natural History Museum, visitors can find out how to look for fossils on the beach. At the National Gallery, the country's main art gallery, visitors can call up paintings on computer screens, find out about them and then print out a plan with their location indicated. At MOMI, the Museum of the Moving Image, almost all the things on display move. You can see how the first film was made, listen to the latest stereo systems and watch the news from the 1960s. The people who work in the museum are actors: those in the 1950s section are in 1950s costume and can talk to you about Marilyn Monroe. The National Gallery was born when King George IV urged (Óáåæäèë) the government to purchase (Êóïèòü) a collection of 38 paintings including six of Hogarth's Marriage A La Mode. Rubens, Rembrandt, other Flemish, Dutch and Italian Renaissance masters were acquired as years passed and the Gallery grew, and is still growing. Next door is the National Portrait Gallery, one of the first major (Ãëàâíûé) institutions to acknowledge the importance of photography in artistic heritage.When the Tate Gallery opened in 1897 British painters, including Turner, appeared there. The Tate, beside The Thames, continued collecting British artists from 1850 to join works by Hogarth, Blake and Pre-Raphaelites and foreign works from the time of the Impressionists. The British Museum's supreme collection was based on the will of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753, which prodded Parliament to acquire his art, antiquities and natural history collections at a sum (£ 20,000) far below their actual value. At the same time the Harleian Collection of Manuscripts was purchased for the nation and on January 15, 1759 the new museum opened -but only to persons considered acceptable. The King's Library was built in 1823 and new wings followed. So did a round Reading Room under a vast copper dome. Ancient works of art abound from Roman hoardes unearthed in recent years to copies of the Magna Carta, Parthenon sculptures and Egyptian mummies. The Victoria and Albert Museum is sited next to a clutch of sister museums - Science and Natural History and Geological which grew out of Prince Albert's Great Exhibition initiatives.