Desertification is the process by which land dries up eventually over time and the land turning to desert. This is common in Africa where most of the terrain is a desert. It is believed that the Sahara desert was once fertile ground but now it is dried up. Sand as far as the eye can see and very little rainfall occurs in this region.
About 2500 B.C., the climate of the Sahara changed. Africa was once a fertile plain but where the Sahara lies was once a fertile plain capable of harvesting foods nearly anytime of year due to the warm weather. But it slowly dried up. As the land became parched, the desert spread. The process of desertification devours thousands of acres of cropland and pastureland each year. As the region dried the people retreated. With no water and little food the land became inhabitable. Most people migrated south towards the marshlands and the savannah.
It is believed on of the causes of the Sahara is due to over harvesting of crops. It is believed that the Paleolithic people had learned how to cultivate in the Nile valley then spread out and established permanent villages. Archeologist say quite a few of the villages existed on the Sahara. Due to the farming over many years the land dried up due to the lack of minerals and lack of water.
The Bantu is what is believed to be the remnants of those who use to farm in the Sahara region. And archeologists have been able to track their migration by studying their language patterns. The Bantu were originally nomadic herders who traveled throughout Africa caring for their flock. But when the Sahara dried up they were forced into permanent settlements.
In conclusion the Sahara desert is the worlds most hottest and largest deserts know today and it is obvious that as large as the Sahara is, it took millions of years for desertification to have such a profound effect on this continent. And it shows no signs of stopping any time soon.